The Orthodox Faith – The Symbol of Faith (8a)

​In previous articles we looked at the first and second ecumenical councils. In this article we will look at the third, fourth and fifth ecumenical councils. But before we do this, we should go over some of the material about the first two, because really all the counsels are related. In a sense we could say that the theme of all the counsels is who Jesus Christ is and how He is related to God and to us.​In the early 4th century a priest of Alexandria named Arius began to preach that Jesus Christ was not God. Arius said that Jesus was the first being who was created, through whom God created the world, but he was still a created being, not God. This false teaching so disturbed the church and civil society that the emperor called a council of bishops to settle the matter in 325AD. The Fathers of the council condemned Arius and affirmed that Jesus is indeed God. The Fathers adopted the Creed which we sing at every Liturgy which says that Jesus is “…And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten, begotten of the Father before all ages. Light of Light; true God of true God; begotten, not made; of one essence with the Father, by whom all things were made;…”
​So the first ecumenical council stressed the divinity of Jesus Christ, the second council (381AD) was called because there were people denying that the Holy Spirit is God. To combat this, the council added a section about the Holy Spirit in the Creed. We say that we believe “… in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, Who proceeds from the Father; Who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified;….”. In other words, the second ecumenical council affirmed that the Holy Spirit is God also.
​In the early 5th century a man named Nestorius became Bishop of Constantinople. When he became Bishop he learned that the Christians in Constantinople were venerating the Virgin Mary as “Theotokos”. Theotokos is a Greek word which is often translated as “Mother of God”. However, it literal means “the God bearer”. In other words, the one who has given birth to God. Nestorius did not like this because he thought it was incorrect to say that Mary is the Mother of God. Nestorius said that she should be called “Christotokos” (the one who bore Christ) or “anthropotokos (the one who gave birth to a man). Nestorius said that there was a division between the Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages, and the Jesus Christ who was born of the Mother of God. He said that there was a connection between the two, but they were not the same.
​At one point Nestorius said that the Word of God dwelled in the man Jesus as in a temple. The problem with this, of course, is that the word of God can be said about all holy men and women. This means that the difference between Jesus Christ and other holy people is a matter of degree. One would say that the word of God dwells in Jesus to a great degree than it does in other holy people. It would be a difference of quantity, not quality, so to speak. In a sense this is a very modern false teaching. Most people, Christian or non-Christian, have good things to say about Jesus. People see him as a great spiritual leader, a moral teacher and so on. Some Buddhists see Jesus as an enlightened being, some Hindus will say that Jesus is an incarnation of God. Even some Jews will say that Jesus was a charismatic rabbi. It is indeed wonderful to see Jesus Christ praised this way, but all of this praise falls short of confessing that Jesus is “true God of true God.” This is what Nestorius denied and the council of Ephesus affirmed. In other words, Nestorius denied that the son of Mary is truly God. Again, we have a denial that Jesus is God. In order to deal with this problem a council was called in 431 AD in Ephesus. The council stated that the Jesus Christ born of the Virgin Mary is indeed the eternal Son of God. There is not just a connection between the two, but they are one. This council said that it was proper to call the Virgin Mary “Theotokos” because she is the Mother of God. This was the third ecumenical council which defended the divinity of Jesus Christ.

Fr. John

The Orthodox Faith – The Symbol of Faith (7)

​Sometimes when people think about salvation history they have the following scheme in mind: The Old Testament is about God the Father, the New Testament is about Jesus Christ, and the ongoing life of the church is a manifestation of the Holy Spirit. It is easy to see why people think this way. When we read the Old Testament we do not see Jesus Christ mentioned by name. On the other hand, Jesus Christ is the central figure of the New Testament. And when the church is born on Pentecost it is with an outpouring of the Holy Spirit. However, this way of looking at things is quite wrong. This is because the three persons of the Holy Trinity – Father, Son and Holy Spirit – always act as one. We saw in an earlier article the Son of God and the Holy Spirit cooperate with the Father in creating and sustaining the world. As the Gospel of John has it: “He was in the world, and the world was made through him, yet the world knew him not.” (Jn 1:10).​Also, the church teaches that when God appeared to people in the Old Testament it was the pre-incarnate Son of God who appeared. For example, in the Book of Exodus we see the following:
“And the angel of the LORD appeared to him in a flame of fire out of the midst of a bush; and he looked, and lo, the bush was burning, yet it was not consumed. And Moses said, “I will turn aside and see this great sight, why the bush is not burnt.” When the LORD saw that he turned aside to see, God called to him out of the bush, “Moses, Moses!” And he said, “Here am I.” Then he said, “Do not come near; put off your shoes from your feet, for the place on which you are standing is holy ground.” And he said, “I am the God of your father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.” And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look at God.” (Ex 3:2-6)
It was the pre-incarnate Son of God who is speaking to Moses. Or in the Book of Isaiah we find:
“For as the rain and the snow come down from heaven, and return not thither but water the earth, making it bring forth and sprout, giving seed to the sower and bread to the eater, so shall my word be that goes forth from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and prosper in the thing for which I sent it. (Is 55:10-11)
When this passage speaks about the word it is referring to Jesus Christ who is the Word of God.
​This, of course, is the Christian view of the Bible. For the Jews this is nonsense. But we believe that Jesus Christ is the fulfilment of the Old Testament and with our knowledge of Jesus Christ we can see the deeper meaning of the Old Testament. We should remember that when the Apostles were teaching the only Bible they had was the Old Testament because the New Testament was only gradually coming into being in the 1st century AD.
Going further into the Creed we see that Jesus Christ was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary. The Church has always insisted that Christ was born miraculously of a Virgin. The church believes that the Virgin birth was a fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah.
“Behold, a young woman shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Imman’u-el.” (Is 7:14)
This translation comes from the Greek version of the Old Testament. “Parthenos” indeed means virgin in Greek. The Hebrew version of the Bible simply has the words “young woman”. But the Church looking at the whole of salvation history has insisted the Greek word Parthenos (virgin) is the correct reading of the text.
​Sometimes people think that the church believes that sex is somehow dirty and sinful, and that is why Jesus had to be born of a virgin. This is not the case. Rather the church teaches that the one who came to bring salvation to humanity can never be in need of salvation himself, as would be the case if he were born in the normal manner. Yes, Jesus Christ is genuinely a human being, but His humanity was not in need of salvation. This is because of the virgin birth. Jesus is a real human being but not a ‘mere’ human being, a human being like any other human being.
​Looking at the two points covered in the article, that Jesus Christ, the Son and Word of God, was always present and active in the world, but became fully present with His birth from the Virgin Mary.

Fr.John

The Orthodox Faith – The Symbol of Faith (6)

We all want to go to heaven. Heaven is the good place. We certainly don’t want to go to the other place. There are probably as many conceptions of heaven as there are human beings. We all have our individual idea of heaven. However, there is sometimes the idea that heaven is a little bit boring. People talk about heaven as a place where angels strum harps and swing censers. The fullest description of heaven is to be found in the Book of Revelation, the last book of the Bible. Let us look at some verses from this book.
“At once I was in the Spirit, and lo, a throne stood in heaven, with one seated on the throne! And he who sat there appeared like jasper and carnelian, and round the throne was a rainbow that looked like an emerald. Round the throne were twenty-four thrones, and seated on the thrones were twenty-four elders, clad in white garments, with golden crowns upon their heads. From the throne issue flashes of lightning, and voices and peals of thunder, and before the throne burn seven torches of fire, which are the seven spirits of God; and before the throne there is as it were a sea of glass, like crystal. And round the throne, on each side of the throne, are four living creatures, full of eyes in front and behind: the first living creature like a lion, the second living creature like an ox, the third living creature with the face of a man, and the fourth living creature like a flying eagle. And the four living creatures, each of them with six wings, are full of eyes all round and within, and day and night they never cease to sing, “Holy, holy, holy, is the Lord God Almighty, who was and is and is to come” (Rev 4:2-8)
When we read this passage, it reminds us of the Divine Liturgy. There is a throne (the altar), white robes (vestments), lamps of fire (candles), and the hymn “Holy, holy, holy” which we sing at Liturgy. Finally in Revelation 5:8,
“And when he had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders fell down before the Lamb, each holding a harp, and with golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the saints;”
We have bowls of incense. This really does seem like the heavenly version of our Liturgy.
​However, this does not necessarily appeal to everyone. At one time an Orthodox priest was teaching a class of bright teenagers about heaven. To describe the glories of heaven the priest compared heaven to a never-ending Liturgy. For him, this was the height of beauty. However, the teenagers in the class reacted with horror. For them the Liturgy was a rather boring event their parents took them to. For them, the idea of a never-ending Liturgy was a nightmare.
​The problem here arises out of our conception of eternity. We are tempted to think of eternity as a never-ending succession of minutes and hours. This is not the case. Eternity is a condition of no time. Time only began to exist when the universe was created. Time is the opposite of eternity. Eternity is the eternal now. This being the case, there is no possibility of being bored in heaven because it is the eternal now, not a succession of minutes and hours. This notion of eternity also tells us something about Jesus Christ. The Creed says “…. And one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten of the Father before all ages.” Naturally, we think of God the Father as being eternal. But the Creed says, that Jesus Christ was begotten of the Father. This sounds like the Father was first and the Son second. Obviously when human parents beget a child, they existed before the child came into being. As a matter of fact, heretics such as Arius thought the Father was first and the Son second. [Arius was infamous for saying that “There was a time when He (Jesus) was not. In other words, because the Son is begotten by the Father He is the second. However, Arius is forgetting about the difference between eternity and time. This is a false teaching and Arius was condemned and the Creed written.] However, the begetting of the Son takes place in eternity, the eternal now. As the Creed says “before all ages”. In other words, Christ was begotten in the eternal now before time so Jesus Christ is just as eternal as the Father. Of course, as human beings we cannot really conceive of the eternal now. We can only think of a succession of minutes and hours. Nevertheless, we can be sure that the eternal now of heaven will be anything but boring.

Fr. John

The Orthodox Faith – The Symbol of Faith (5)

Some people accuse Christianity of having a negative view of human beings, seeing humanity only as poor, wretched sinners. However, in fact Christianity has a quite positive view of human beings. The Book of Genesis tell us that we are created “in the image and likeness of God” (Gen1:26). Human beings have fallen into sin, of course, but this does not destroy the image and likeness of God within us. We can say that Jesus Christ came into the world to restore and renew the image of God within us.​After the creation of the material world, including flora and fauna, God creates humanity and says that human beings are given dominion, or authority, over the material world. This does not mean that humanity can abuse the natural world, but rather humanity is called to make God present in the world to reflect His love for the world and finally, to offer the good things of this world, in gratitude to God. Actually, human beings are higher than angels. It is humanity that was given authority of the world. Only human beings are made in the image and likeness of God. Finally the Son of God became a human being, not an angel.
As a matter of fact, the Fathers of the Orthodox Church wrote that “God became a human being so that human beings can become God”. Now this is a bold saying but we should not misunderstand it. God is God by nature. But we become like God through grace. Or to put it another way, Jesus Christ is the Son of God by nature, but we become sons and daughters of God through adoption in the sacrament of baptism. The only thing that hinders this process is sin, but God has given us through the church, the forgiveness of sins so that we can overcome this.
​This is a process that will continue through all eternity. Some people imagine heaven as a static world, but in fact we will be growing into God’s beauty, truth and goodness forever. We can never exhaust the riches of God.
​In fact, we learn what it means to be a human being by looking at the Holy Trinity. The Trinity teaches us that we are not made to be “rugged individualists”. Rather we are made to be persons in loving relationships with other persons, both divine and human. God is not an isolated monarch, but rather exists as a Trinity of loving persons. There is a difference and even hierarchy in the Trinity. The Trinity is One, but God the Father is the source and cause of the person of the Son and Spirit, but they are equal to each other. This is how we human beings should relate to other people. We share a common nature with the rest of humanity but as persons we are unique. To be human means to be in relationship with other persons, divine and human. As human beings we are not homeless parts of a collective, nor are we isolated individuals. This means there can be differences and hierarchy among humans, but we are all equal to one another. Or to put it another way, Christ said in Luke 22:25-27
“…… “The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and those in authority over them are called benefactors. But not so with you; rather let the greatest among you become as the youngest, and the leader as one who serves. For which is the greater, one who sits at table, or one who serves? Is it not the one who sits at table? But I am among you as one who serves.”
​In other worlds, Christ tells us that among Christians there should be no tyranny of one over another, but rather to be a Christian leader is to be a humble servant.
​So let us continue that path we are on, growing in knowledge and love of God through eternity, existing in relationship with the person of the Trinity and other human beings.

Fr. John

The Orthodox Faith – The Symbol of Faith (4)

As Christians we believe that the world was created by God, as it says in the Creed “I believe in one God… the maker of all things visible and invisible.” This idea of creation is not held by atheists who believe that the world, with its complexity and beauty, just came into being by chance, or by believers of some Eastern religions in which the world “emanates” from God, the world flows out of God and then flows back, in a process of eternal return.​As Orthodox we believe that the entire Holy Trinity took part in creation. Although the Old Testament does not teach about the Trinity very clearly, when we Christians read it we see hints of the Holy Trinity. In the creation account in the book of Genesis we read:
“In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters. And God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light.” (Gen 1:1-3)
​The first verses mentions the spirit or breath of God and the following verse begins with “And God said…” Of course when a person says something, he says a word. And we believe this world to be Jesus Christ. Or in psalm 33:6-9 we see another reference to the world being created by the Word of the Lord (i.e., Jesus Christ) and by the breath or spirit of God.
“By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and all their host by the breath of his mouth. He gathered the waters of the sea as in a bottle; he put the deeps in storehouses. Let all the earth fear the Lord, let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of him! For he spoke, and it came to be; he commanded, and it stood forth. (Ps 33:6-9)
In the Book of Genesis the world is said to have been created in six days and many people take this to mean six 24-hour days as we experience now. However, even in the patristic period some Fathers believed the six days could be six long periods of time. The idea is that God started the process and guides its development.
​The Bible also tells us that the created world is “very good” (Gen 1:31). Of course we know that the world is not perfect. In addition to human sin there are diseases, natural disasters and so on. This is because the material world somehow fell together with Adam and Eve. However, because the world is fundamentally good, Christianity does not see salvation as a flight from the material world, but rather will be transformed at the end of time together with the resurrection of humanity.
​Although Christianity does not accept pantheism (that God and the world are one) it believes that God is present in every place for the created world. For example, the prayer:
O Heavenly King, the Comforter, the Spirit of Truth, who art everywhere present and fillest all things, Treasury of blessing and Giver of Life, come and abide in us and cleanse us from every impurity, and save our souls, O Good One.
​It says that God is “everywhere present and fillest all things.” This same omnipresence of God is expressed in Psalm 139:7-12 and Acts 17:27-28.
“Whither shall I go from thy Spirit? Or whither shall I flee from thy presence? If I ascend to heaven, thou art there! If I make my bed in Sheol, thou art there! If I take the wings of the morning and dwell in the uttermost parts of the sea, even there thy hand shall lead me, and thy right hand shall hold me. If I say, “Let only darkness cover me, and the light about me be night,” even the darkness is not dark to thee, the night is bright as the day; for darkness is as light with thee.”
“….. Yet he is not far from each one of us, for `In him we live and move and have our being’;
as even some of your poets have said, `For we are indeed his offspring.’ (Acts 17:27-28)
Another part of the created world is that of the bodiless powers (angels). It is somewhat incorrect to call all the bodiless powers angels, because angels are only one rank of the nine categories of bodiless powers. There are Angels Archangels, Principalities, Powers, Virtues, Dominions, Thrones, Cherubim and Seraphim. The word angel means messenger and in the Bible we see the bodiless powers conveying messages from God to humanity and, in general, mediating between God and the world. The demons or the devil are also bodiless powers created by God who rebelled against God and were cast into hell.
​So we see that the created world, i.e., the world of angels, the world of inanimate and animate things, and the world of human beings comes from the hand of God and is guided, sustained and loved by Him.

 Fr. John