The Orthodox Faith – Salvation History (6c)

As noted earlier the Temple of Jerusalem was destroyed by the Romans. Now, Christians themselves are the Temple.

‘But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far off have been brought near in the blood of Christ. For he is our peace, who has made us both one, and has broken down the dividing wall of hostility, by abolishing in his flesh the law of commandments and ordinances, that he might create in himself one new man in place of the two, so making peace, and might reconcile us both to God in one body through the cross, thereby bringing the hostility to an end. And he came and preached peace to you who were far off and peace to those who were near; for through him we both have access in one Spirit to the Father. So then you are no longer strangers and sojourners, but you are fellow citizens with the saints and members of the household of God, built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus himself being the cornerstone, in whom the whole structure is joined together and grows into a holy temple in the Lord; in whom you also are built into it for a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.” (Eph 2:13-22)

“Do you not know that you are God’s temple and that God’s Spirit dwells in you? If any one destroys God’s temple, God will destroy him. For God’s temple is holy, and that temple you are..” (I Cor 3:16-17)

“Come to him, to that living stone, rejected by men but in God’s sight chosen and precious; and like living stones be yourselves built into a spiritual house, to be a holy priesthood, to offer spiritual sacrifices acceptable to God through Jesus Christ. For it stands in scripture: “Behold, I am laying in Zion a stone, a cornerstone chosen and precious, and he who believes in him will not be put to shame.” (I Pet 2:4-6)

The point of all of this is clear. The Temple in Jerusalem was the presence of God on earth. For Jews, there was nothing as holy as this. So, when Jesus identifies His body with the Temple and claims authority over it, He is telling us that He Himself is that locus of Holiness, both in this world and the next. And we ourselves as baptized Christians are ourselves become temples of the Lord. We may fail to live up to this standard, but we do indeed partake of God’s holiness. And, of course, there will be no temple in heaven. The Book of Revelation, the last book of the Bible describes heaven in this way:

“I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and the sea was no more. And I saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband; and I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, “Behold, the dwelling of God is with men. He will dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God himself will be with them; … And I saw no temple in the city, for its temple is the Lord God the Almighty and the Lamb. And the city has no need of sun or moon to shine upon it, for the glory of God is its light, and its lamp is the Lamb. By its light shall the nations walk; and the kings of the earth shall bring their glory into it, and its gates shall never be shut by day — and there shall be no night there; they shall bring into it the glory and the honor of the nations. But nothing unclean shall enter it, nor anyone who practices abomination or falsehood, but only those who are written in the Lamb’s book of life. (Rev 21: 1-3, 22-27)

It seems that the Ark of the Covenant was taken from the Temple when the Babylonians sacked the Temple in 585 BC. It’s location now is a matter of conjecture.

Some Jewish sources suggest that the Ark was hidden in caves beneath the Temple when the Babylonians were attacking the Temple. On the other hand, there is a strong, ancient tradition in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church that they possess the Ark of the Covenant. Other sources suggest it was in Rome or someplace else in Europe. Even now people search for the Ark. But this is difficult. Because of the political situation in Jerusalem, excavation beneath the Temple Mount is restricted. Also, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church while claiming that it has the Ark refuses to show it to the world. As far as Rome goes, Rome itself was sacked by the barbarians, so what happened to the Ark after this?

The Ark also occurs in secular culture. We may remember the 1980 movie “Raiders of the Lost Ark.” The search for the Ark is the theme of this movie. In general, we see many instances in popular culture from movies, books, video games, etc. But we should never forget that the Ark is a holy Jewish and Christian relic. It does not have magical powers but is a reminder of God’s covenant and presence with humanity.

Fr. John

The Orthodox Faith – Salvation History (6b)

Although God is everywhere present, his presence was felt to be specially present in the Temple where the Ark of the Covenant was contained in the Holy of Holies, into which only the High Priest could enter. An example of this presence of God is described by the Prophet Isaiah.

“In the year that King Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up; and his train filled the temple. Above him stood the seraphim; each had six wings: with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. And one called to another and said: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory.” And the foundations of the thresholds shook at the voice of him who called, and the house was filled with smoke.” (Is 6:1-4)

So, as we have seen, the Temple was the presence of God on earth. There was no holier place than this for the Jewish people. This sense of God’s presence is seen in the description of the dedication of Solomon’s Temple,

“Then the priests brought the ark of the covenant of the Lord to its place, in the inner sanctuary of the house, in the most holy place, underneath the wings of the cherubim. (I Kings 8:6)

“And the Lord said to him, “I have heard your prayer and your supplication, which you have made before me; I have consecrated this house which you have built and put my name there forever; my eyes and my heart will be there for all time. (I Kings 9:3)

But as crucial as the Temple was even in the Old Testament promised in the future, the glory of God would fill all creation, and that God would be present in His people as He was in the Holy of Holies. It was said that sacrifice would cease. Therefore, Jesus Christ’s attitude towards the Temple is a key to the understanding of how Jesus understood Himself and His mission.

For example, Jesus at one time claims to be greater than the Temple.

“At that time Jesus went through the grainfields on the sabbath; his disciples were hungry, and they began to pluck heads of grain and to eat. But when the Pharisees saw it, they said to him, “Look, your disciples are doing what is not lawful to do on the sabbath.” He said to them, “Have you not read what David did, when he was hungry, and those who were with him: how he entered the house of God and ate the bread of the Presence, which it was not lawful for him to eat nor for those who were with him, but only for the priests? Or have you not read in the law how on the sabbath the priests in the temple profane the sabbath, and are guiltless? I tell you, something greater than the temple is here.” (Mt 12:1-6)

Or we think of Christ’s cleansing of the Temple. For example,

“The Passover of the Jews was at hand, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. In the temple he found those who were selling oxen and sheep and pigeons, and the money-changers at their business. And making a whip of cords, he drove them all, with the sheep and oxen, out of the temple; and he poured out the coins of the money-changers and overturned their tables. And he told those who sold the pigeons, “Take these things away; you shall not make my Father’s house a house of trade.” His disciples remembered that it was written, “Zeal for thy house will consume me.” The Jews then said to him, “What sign have you to show us for doing this?” Jesus answered them, “Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.” The Jews then said, “It has taken forty-six years to build this temple, and will you raise it up in three days?” (Jn 2:13-21)

Here Christ asserts His authority over the Temple In this section Christ identifies His body with the Temple.

Sometimes critics of Christianity say that Jesus Christ never claimed to be God. And nit is true Jesus did not do this often. But there is a reason for this. If Jesus had gone around claiming to be God people would have mocked him and said he is crazy, or they would have killed him much earlier than they did. However, he did make these claims to be God in subtle ways. So, what Jesus said about the Temple is one way of making these claims to be divine. For Christ to say that he is greater that the table or that he had the authority to cleanse the Temple is one of Christ’s away to say he is God.

Fr. John

The Orthodox Faith – Salvation History (6A)

One of the main themes of the Old Testament and the New Testament is that of the Temple in Jerusalem.

Before we look at the Jerusalem Temple as it existed in the time of Jesus, we have to look at its predecessor, the Tabernacle in the desert. At one time in the Old Testament God ordered Moses to make the Ark of the Covenant, which was a gold-covered wooden box with a lid and a cover. (If we know about the movie from the 1980s, this is the ark in the title “Raiders of the Lost Ark”) This ark, or box contained the two tablets of the Ten Commandments, a golden jar holding manna and Aaron’s Rod, which budded.

“…. having the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, which contained a golden urn holding the manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded, and the tables of the covenant.” (Heb 9:4)

This ark was carried by the Hebrews as they travelled in the desert. It was a truly holy object, in which God’s presence was strongly felt. Because it was so holy when the Hebrews camped it was put into a special, richly-decorated tent called a Tabernacle. The description of the Tabernacle is found in Exodus chapters 25-30.

The Tabernacle in the desert was a large, rectanglar tent which was erected whenever the Hebrews settled down in a camp. It had three sections. The first section was where people first entered. The second was called the Holy Place. The altar of incense was there. Finally there was the Holy of Holies where the Ark of the Covenant was located. As the name implies this was the most sacred place in the Tabernacle. It is described in Exodus.

“And you shall make a veil of blue and purple and scarlet stuff and fine twined linen; in skilled work shall it be made, with cherubim; and you shall hang it upon four pillars of acacia overlaid with gold, with hooks of gold, upon four bases of silver. And you shall hang the veil from the clasps and bring the ark of the testimony in thither within the veil; and the veil shall separate for you the holy place from the most holy. You shall put the mercy seat upon the ark of the testimony in the most holy place. And you shall set the table outside the veil, and the lampstand on the south side of the tabernacle opposite the table; and you shall put the table on the north side. “And you shall make a screen for the door of the tent, of blue and purple and scarlet stuff and fine twined linen, embroidered with needlework. And you shall make for the screen five pillars of acacia and overlay them with gold; their hooks shall be of gold, and you shall cast five bases of bronze for them. You shall make the altar of acacia wood, five cubits long and five cubits broad; the altar shall be square, and its height shall be three cubits. And you shall make horns for it on its four corners; its horns shall be of one piece with it, and you shall overlay it with bronze.” (Ex 26:31-27:2)

Eventually, after the Hebrews had entered the Promised Land and became a settled kingdom, the Temple in Jerusalem was constructed by King Solomon. This temple was attacked and damaged several times by the enemies of the Hebrews, and finally was completely destroyed by the Babylonians in 585 BC when Jerusalem was attacked and the Jewish people were taken into captivity in Babylon.

The Second Temple was built between 538-515. This Temple was renovated and expanded by King Herod the Great in 20 BC. This is the Temple that existed in the time of Jesus. This Temple was destroyed in 70 AD by the Romans and followed the same pattern as the Tabernacle, but in a much more elaborate way. The layout was as follows: First came the Courts of the Gentiles or non-Jews. This was the only part of the Temple that non-Jews could enter. As a matter of fact, if a non-Jew went further than this he could be put to death. To see how seriously this was taken we can take an example from the Book of Acts. St. Paul was in Jerusalem with Trophimus, a gentile (non-Jew) convert to Christianity. The Jews believe that St. Paul brought him into the temple beyond the Court of the Gentiles. This is how the Jews reacted:

“When the seven days were almost completed, the Jews from Asia, who had seen him in the temple, stirred up all the crowd, and laid hands on him, crying out, “Men of Israel, help! This is the man who is teaching men everywhere against the people and the law and this place; moreover he also brought Greeks into the temple, and he has defiled this holy place.” For they had previously seen Troph’imus the Ephesian with him in the city, and they supposed that Paul had brought him into the temple. Then all the city was aroused, and the people ran together; they seized Paul and dragged him out of the temple, and at once the gates were shut. And as they were trying to kill him, word came to the tribune of the cohort that all Jerusalem was in confusion. He at once took soldiers and centurions, and ran down to them; and when they saw the tribune and the soldiers, they stopped beating Paul. (Acts 21:27-32)

In other words, the Jews wanted to kill St. Paul for brining a non-Jew into the Temple. There was such a disturbance that Roman troops were called to calm things down.

Next was the Court of the Women. Then the Court of the Israelites, where any ritually pure Jewish man could enter. After this we have the Court of the priest then the temple court, where the altar of sacrifice was located. Finally, we get to the Holy of Holies. The Holy of Holies was the holiest place in the Temple. This was where the Ark of the Covenant was kept in the Tabernacle in the first Temple. But as we have seen it disappeared with the destruction of the first Temple. Only the High Priest cold enter this part of the Temple. He would enter it once a year on the Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur), the holiest day of the Jewish year.

Fr. John

The Orthodox Faith – Salvation History (5b)

It is worth noting that Pentecost means fifty, the fifty days after Easter. The old law was given fifty days after the Passover and the new law is given fifty days after Easter. We see this in the Acts of the Apostles,

When the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. And suddenly a sound came from heaven like the rush of a mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting. And there appeared to them tongues as of fire, distributed and resting on each one of them. (Acts 2:1-4)

This experience of receiving the Holy Spirit is obviously not the giving of a new written moral law (the Ten Commandants are always valid), but rather the old law is now written on human hearts. This is “inspiration” in the truest sense because inspiration literally means the going in of the Spirit. In that way the external law of Moses is fulfilled by the internal laws of Christ.

But he who looks into the perfect law, the law of liberty, and perseveres, being no hearer that forgets but a doer that acts, he shall be blessed in his doing. …. So speak and so act as those who are to be judged under the law of liberty. (James 1:25, 2:12)

For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set me free from the law of sin and death. For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do: sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, in order that the just requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit. (Romans 8:2-4)

To make an additional point, we know that in Old Testament times lambs (and other animals) were sacrificed in order to receive forgiveness of sins. However, the blood of the lambs could never change humanity inwardly.

“For since the law has but a shadow of the good things to come instead of the true form of these realities, it can never, by the same sacrifices which are continually offered year after year, make perfect those who draw near. Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered? If the worshipers had once been cleansed, they would no longer have any consciousness of sin. But in these sacrifices there is a reminder of sin year after year. For it is impossible that the blood of bulls and goats should take away sins. And every priest stands daily at his service, offering repeatedly the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins. But when Christ had offered for all time a single sacrifice for sins, he sat down at the right hand of God, then to wait until his enemies should be made a stool for his feet. For by a single offering he has perfected for all time those who are sanctified.”  (Heb 10:1-4, 11-14)

But Jesus Christ is the true Lamb of God whose self-sacrifice on the cross and subsequent resurrection earned for humanity a genuine forgiveness of sins and reconcilement with God:

“Then he showed me the river of the water of life, bright as crystal, flowing from the throne of God and of the Lamb through the middle of the street of the city; also, on either side of the river, the tree of life with its twelve kinds of fruit, yielding its fruit each month; and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations. There shall no more be anything accursed, but the throne of God and of the Lamb shall be in it, and his servants shall worship him; they shall see his face, and his name shall be on their foreheads. And night shall be no more; they need no light of lamp or sun, for the Lord God will be their light, and they shall reign for ever and ever. (Rev 22:1-5)

Or in another passage

“… they will make war on the Lamb, and the Lamb will conquer them, for he is Lord of lords and King of kings, and those with him are called and chosen and faithful.” (Rev 17:14)

So, when we look at all the history of the Bible we see Jesus Christ as the fulfilling of events and persons in the Old Testament. One of the most important fulfillments is that of the Paschal lamb. We know in the Old Testament as God was about to free the Hebrew people from slavery he order4ed the Jews to sacrifice a lamb and smear its blood on their door. In this way, the angel of God who was sent to slay the first-born sons of the Egyptians, would know not to kill the children of the Israelites inside the house. So, the death of the lamb in the Old Testament which saved the Hebrews from death foreshadowed the New Testament when the blood of Christ, the true lamb, saves all of humanity from death. St. John in his Gospel sys quite clearly that Jesus is the true lamb.

“… and he looked at Jesus as he walked, and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God!” (John 1:36)

It is interesting that in Western liturgies we find the phrases

“Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. “Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. “Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, grant us Thy peace.”

This takes place just before the breaking of the Eucharistic bread (i.e, the Body of Christ). The priest elevates it and says “The Body of Christ” so the people can see it and the priest continues “Behold the Lamb of God, behold Him who takes away the sins of the world. Blessed are those called to the supper of the Lamb.”

In these prayers we see clearly that we are saved from death by the sacrificial death of Christ, which foreshadowed in the Old Testament and is fulfilled in the New Testament and in the Liturgy of the Church.

Fr. John


Christ is Risen!   Хрїсто́съ воскре́се!     Χριστς νέστη!

In our increasingly secular times, we are told that death is natural and we should accept it as such. A human being, an animal, even a plant is born, matures, grows old and dies. This is called the cycle of life. But from a Christian perspective, death is not natural. God did not create death. Death is the most unnatural thing in the world. God created humanity for eternal life, for an embodied life with God. It is only with human sin that death entered the world. Adam and Eve sinned by partaking of the ‘forbidden fruit’ and were subjected to death. Even so, death is not simply a punishment. When Adam and Eve ate from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil they sinned against God. If they had eaten of the Tree of Life they would have become immortal. This may sound good, but it would mean that they would have lived forever with the stain of sin on their souls. To prevent this God subjected them to mortality in the knowledge that he would send his Son, Jesus Christ, to save humanity from sin and death.

Sometimes people think that the Christian belief that people’s bodies die, and their souls go to heaven to live with God. However, this is a pagan way of looking at things. For Christians, life is an embodied life, a life lived in union of soul and body. The separation of soul and body at death is unnatural. Therefore, when Christ comes at the end of time all the dead will rise to a new, embodied life, a life that will be eternal. This is what men and women are created for.

Christ’s resurrection is the origin of our salvation. The resurrection is not simply an event in the past. Rather, when we are baptized we become partakers of Christ’s death and resurrection. Just as Christ was in the tomb for three days, so we went down into the water of the baptismal font three times. And just as Christ was raised from the tomb, we were raised from the font to become partakers of a new resurrection life. We will not fully experience resurrection until Christ comes again, but we participate in this life here and now, especially when we received Holy Communion.

All of this means that Christ’s resurrection is not simply an event of the past. Every Easter we experience the joy of resurrection life. Easter lasts forty days but during those days we should never forget that Christ’s resurrection even though we are busy with daily life. 

Beyond this, every Sunday is a mini-Pascha in which we receive the Body and Blood of Christ in the sacrament of Holy Communion.

The resurrection of Jesus Christ is the heart of the Christian faith. It is, as St. Paul writes “…if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is in vain and your faith is in vain.” But Christ is risen, and we share in this joy.