As we have seen in previous articles, events and people in the Old Testament point forward to and foreshadow the events and people in the New Testament and in the life of the church. For example, the manna with which God fed the Jews in the desert points forward to Christ feeding the 5000 in the wilderness, to the Last Supper and to the Holy Communion we receive at the Divine Liturgy.
The Jewish people were saved by going down into the sea which Moses had miraculously parted. In the same way we are saved by going down into the waters of Baptism.
We continue the same theme here. Consider the following quote from St. Paul.
“I want you to know, brethren, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea, and all ate the same supernatural food and all drank the same supernatural drink. For they drank from the supernatural Rock which followed them, and the Rock was Christ.” (I Cor 10:1-4)
What is St. Paul talking about here? What is the supernatural Rock which followed them? To answer this question, we have to go back to the Exodus which describes the liberation of the Jewish people from slavery in Egypt. It says,
“All the congregation of the people of Israel moved on from the wilderness of Sin by stages, according to the commandment of the Lord, and camped at Reph’idim; but there was no water for the people to drink. Therefore the people found fault with Moses, and said, “Give us water to drink.” And Moses said to them, “Why do you find fault with me? Why do you put the Lord to the proof?” But the people thirsted there for water, and the people murmured against Moses, and said, “Why did you bring us up out of Egypt, to kill us and our children and our cattle with thirst?” So Moses cried to the Lord, “What shall I do with this people? They are almost ready to stone me.” And the Lord said to Moses, “Pass on before the people, taking with you some of the elders of Israel; and take in your hand the rod with which you struck the Nile, and go. Behold, I will stand before you there on the rock at Horeb; and you shall strike the rock, and water shall come out of it, that the people may drink.” And Moses did so, in the sight of the elders of Israel.” (Ex 17:1-6)
The verses in St. Paul we see a reference to the “rock” which followed them. This may seem strange or even amusing. But St. Paul tells us the rock was Jesus Christ. The main point is important and clear.
In the desert people need water and water is often hard to find. God giving water to the Jews is a sign of God’s love for His people. Just as Jesus Christ is “bread from heaven” He is also the “living water”. We remember that when Christ speaks to the Samaritan woman he says
“the last day of the feast, the great day, Jesus stood up and proclaimed, “If any one thirst, let him come to me and drink. He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, `Out of his heart shall flow rivers of living water.'” Now this he said about the Spirit, which those who believed in him were to receive; for as yet the Spirit had not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.” (Jn 7:37-39)
In other words, water is necessary for life, physical life. In the same way this “living water” is necessary for our spiritual health. St. John tells us that this living water is the Holy Spirit. The Holy Spirit was given on the day of Pentecost.
Critics of Christianity often say that Christianity restricts human freedom, that it binds us with all sorts of rule and regulations. But if we look at the Bible, we see that Christianity is about liberation, about our freedom from slavery. The whole Book of Exodus is about the liberation of the Jewish people from slavery in Egypt. In the same way, Christ frees us from slavery to sin and death. When we act out our passions, our sins bind and restrict our freedom. This bondage makes it difficult to love God and our neighbor. The Christian life is a process of regaining our freedom. And of course, our greatest fear is death. Christ, who rose from the dead, promises us that He will raise us up also. Christ is the conqueror of death and the water of Baptism, and the Body and Blood of Holy Communion incorporating us into Christ’s victory over death. Or to put it another way, Jesus said, “…you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free.”